How GIS can be used as a response system during natural calamity
WHAT IS GIS?
GIS or Geographic Information Systems is a tool that captures geographic data for the purpose of manipulation, viewing and analysis. In technical terms, it is a computer system that captures, stores, checks, and displays data related to locations on the Earth’s surface.
Used to analyze spatial data or geographic information for any given and possible purpose, in today’s time – GIS is the go-to technology for location-based decisions. One of the sectors that majorly depends on GIS for reducing risks is disaster management. Playing a fundamental role in understanding the current and future issues involving geographic space, GIS positively builds as a response system for disaster management. From assisting in locating the potential hazard exposure to preparing for quick strategies – GIS has the potential to be used as a response system during disasters.
- Identifying and mapping the disaster prone areas
- Planning safety measures beforehand
- Planning rescue and evacuation
- Rehabilitation and post disaster management
WAYS GIS HELPS IN DISASTER MANAGEMENT
GIS as a tool has the power to collect data from various sources to be used for a common purpose on a common platform. These readily accessible data of critical information help to plan efficient disaster management in cases of emergencies. Some ways GIS has been helping in mitigating natural calamities are –
- GIS helps in creating the map of disaster affected areas
- Can allow the mapping of evacuation routes by use of imagery captured.
- If a weather forecast is available then the government officials can take appropriate decisions based on the available maps and locations.
- Create disaster maps to show the risk zones as well as disaster impact zones.
- Helps in mapping evacuation routes
- Shelter planning
- Identifies debris removal strategies
- Used for storing digitized maps, their visualization and analysis.
- Helps in re-establishing communication
- Gives an estimate of economic impacts and social impacts
- Useful in connecting dislocated families and sending helps to them
- Identifying the medicals and hospitals for treatment nearby
- Helps to find shelter and camps that one can easily reach in the nearby places
- Identifying safe disaster prone places where shelters and camps can be organized with the help of maps.
- Help secure relief funding
- Hazard mapping for flood plains and fault lines, fire hazards, earthquakes and more
- Identifying, following and analysing the potential destruction of disaster
- Using remote sensing to gauge initial destruction, to infrastructure in the case of an earthquake or terrorist attack
- Tracking the location and supply levels of support and rescue teams following an emergency event
- Creating computer-generated maps of infrastructure including pipes, sewers, power lines, neighbourhoods’ and other aspects of an area so the map can be referenced in preparedness, emergency and recovery efforts
- Information about emergency headquarters (i.e police, fire, ambulance) for quickest response during the time of emergency
- Identifying potentially vulnerable residents in case of a disaster, in terms of age, income and other insights
- Tracking terrorist attacks, sabotage and other threats to national security using geospatial information technology
- Using sensors on airplanes or satellites (remote sensing) to record events such as storms and to integrate that information into a geographic information system
- Finding current evacuation routes that have been updated as a result of the disaster at hand